Monday, October 29, 2012

Steps to Writing a Great Paragraph

This strategy will teach you how to write a paragraph with appropriate details. This template is designed to provide you with sequential steps for creating a perfect paragraph.
A paragraph consists of three parts: topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence. Wow! Did you hear that? Just think about that fact for a minute. We use thousands of words, and if we organize them into three parts, we will have a perfect paragraph.
Topic sentence - A topic sentence tells the reader what to expect in the paragraph that follows. It introduces the main idea. For this reason it is important to practice writing them in order to let your reader know what is coming up. An easy way to write topic sentence is start with a list. Making lists is a great way to generate and organize ideas for your topic sentence. For example:
Come up with five things related to these topics: colors, kinds of weather, insects.
Next, turn your topic into a sentence. For example:
Fruit comes in many different colors.
Once you organized your ideas, you can to begin to write a paragraph. A paragraph is a group of sentences about the same topic. After you have written list, you can turn your ideas into sentences.
Supporting details - Supporting details support your topic by telling more about it. You can begin by taking the list you made above and turning them into sentences. Choose three of your best items for your supporting sentences. Supporting details only has three sentences. For example:
Fruit comes in many different colors.
Supporting details
1. apple
2. banana
3. pear
Make a sentence for each one.
Apple - Apples are red, green and yellow.
Banana - Bananas are yellow.
Pear - Pears are green and brown.
Write supporting details for the topic "colors".
Concluding sentences - Concluding sentences provides one final idea about your topic. It can tell how you feel or what you think about your topic. For example:
Fruit comes in many different colors.
Supporting details
1. Apples are red, green and yellow.
2. Bananas are yellow.
3. Pears are green and brown.
Concluding Sentence
I like to look at different types of fruit.
Write a concluding for the topic "color"
That's how easy it is to write a paragraph. Use the template below to help you write a great paragraph.
The Paragraph
Directions: Think of a topic. Write it on the line provided. List five things that correspond to the title and circle three of your favorite from the list.
1. _______________________

Directions: Turn your topic into a topic sentence.
Directions: Turn your ideas from above into supporting sentences.
1. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
2. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
3. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

Directions: Turn your topic sentence into a concluding sentence.
Directions: Write paragraph

Monday, October 22, 2012

PCV Training for Driving Minibuses

You need PCV training from experienced trainers to become a passenger carrying vehicle (PCV) driver. According to the strict driving regulation of UK and the European Union, obtaining the PCV driver license of a specific category is a prerequisite for driving vehicles of the relevant category.
Categories of PCV driving licence
The PCV driving licence is divided into two categories - D1 and D. People with the D1 licence can drive minibuses with 9 to 16 passenger seats. Larger buses can only be driven by people with category D licence.
In addition to driving minibuses, the category D licence holders are eligible for driving passenger carrying recovery vehicle of weight not more than 10.2 tonnes for transporting disabled or injured passengers. In addition to the category D licence, the driver should hold a public service vehicle operators licence.
However, drivers of certain categories of passenger carrying vehicles can drive minibuses without a D or D1 category licence. People with a full category B or car licence can drive minibuses with 16 seats, provided the driver is at least 21 years of age, drives a vehicle owned by a non-commercial organization for a social purpose and not for hire or reward, and the maximum weight of the minibus including equipments for disabled people is 4.25 tonnes. An elderly driver above 70 years of age who meets the medical standards essential for driving a D1 category vehicle can drive a minibus. Passenger carrying vehicles at least 30 years old with not more than eight seats can be driven by a driver with a full category B licence for purposes other than hire or reward.
Why you need PCV driving training
By enrolling in a reputed PCV training course, you will receive the best quality training from experienced trainers that will help you to pass the PCV driving test. Candidates at least 18 years of age are eligible for obtaining PCV driving licence. However, until the age of 21, you can only drive minibuses that run up to a distance of 50 km.
Only candidates who meet the stringent medical regulations can apply for a provisional driving licence. You will receive the category D1 or D driving licence only after passing both the practical and the theory tests.
The PCV driving training courses are tailored to meet the requirement of individual candidates as assessed by the initial driving aptitude test conducted by the training organization. During the training program, candidates learn the different methods of handling a passenger carrying vehicle in diverse driving conditions.
Looking for HGV training course? Central transport training is widely acknowledged as the leading provider of pcv training. We believe in offering the highest possible levels of service and quality in all areas and are committed to an ongoing process of review and improvement.

Sunday, October 14, 2012

Why You Need HGV Driver Training

Heavy good vehicle (HGV) driver training is a prerequisite for obtaining a HGV driver license. Driving a heavy goods vehicle is not as easy as driving cars or other lightweight vehicles. Specialized driving knowledge is essential for maneuvering the heavy commercial vehicles.
What is a heavy good vehicle?
Good vehicles above 3500 kg are known as heavy good vehicles. These comprise of lorries and trucks used for transporting heavy commercial goods such as heavy equipments, construction material, foods and chemicals.
How to become a HGV driver
Appropriate driving licenses are required to become a HGV driver in the European Union. HGV driving is divided into four categories - C1, C1+E, C and C+E. Although the aspiring HGV drivers take the same driving test regardless of category, the qualifying marks vary from category to category.
Features of HGV driving training course
The HGV driving training course prepares candidates for different HGV driving categories. The course emphasizes on practical driving, training students to handle the vehicle in diverse driving conditions. The trainer always takes into account the initial driving experience or aptitude of the candidate before designing the appropriate course. While the practical driving sessions prepare the candidate for passing the driving test needed for obtaining a provisional vocational license, to be eligible for the driving license of the relevant category, candidates are required to clear the theoretical test. During the practical training, candidates are exposed to different types of roads. They are trained in handling the vehicles in different types of environment. Depending upon the driving skills and learning ability of a candidate, it usually takes 5 to 7 days to complete the practical training.
The theoretical test is divided into two parts. The multiple-choice part tests the overall driving aptitude and knowledge of the candidate. The second part deals with hazard perception. It is a computer-based test. Only candidates who clear both the parts of the theoretical tests receive the HGV driver's certificate. The multiple-choice test varies according to the category of the HGV driver license. Regardless of category, candidates are required to take identical hazard perception test.
To obtain a driving license for the higher driving category, the candidate must be at least 21 years of age. To upgrade your HGV driving license to a higher category, you have to clear the practical test for that category. However, candidates are usually exempted from appearing in the theory test that they have cleared during the earlier driver license test.
Looking for hgv driver training? Central transport training is widely acknowledged as the leading provider of pcv training. We believe in offering the highest possible levels of service and quality in all areas and are committed to an ongoing process of review and improvement.

Sunday, October 7, 2012

If Your School Were a Hospital, Would the Patients Be Dead?

As a teacher who has worked in several special education settings since 2004, two major issues stand out. The most pressing matters I have encountered include contention over the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in regard to how it affects students with disabilities, as well as the cumbersome referral process.
As part of testing required by the No Child Left Behind Act, an anonymous local school district (not mine) mandated a former colleague to administer a modified version of the High School Proficiency Exam (HSPE) to an eighteen-year-old student, "Lucia" with developmental delays. According to my teacher friend, the district required her to rewrite grade-level test and content area questions to assess Lucia. My colleague did not administer the test with glee, as Lucia performs academically on a first/second grade level and has severe speech delays. How is it possible to test a student on twelfth grade level content when she performs academically on a primary grade level? Is that an accurate measure of data?
Instead of spending hours creating the test, assessing Lucia, and conjuring voodoo data, would not time, efforts, and educational dollars be better spent on teaching the student important and meaningful life skills, and assessing her on information that is important and pertinent for Lucia as an individual?
The referral process for students to be evaluated for special education services is daunting to navigate. Parents and guardians have told me horror stories of advocating for their children. They have recounted woeful tales where their efforts were met with hostility and incompetence on the part of the schools. For example, last year I tutored a middle school student with dyslexia in language arts and executive functioning. Previously the girl, "Lulu," had attended a nonpublic school for students with learning disabilities. This was her first year in public school. Lulu's grandmother, a feisty retired attorney, contacted various parties at the school in vain attempts to facilitate special services for Lulu. Finally, she researched special education law, whipped up the requisite written documents, and the school stopped dragging their feet. On one of the documents for the initial child study meeting, the teacher indicated that Lulu's dyslexia was due to vision problems! Earlier this school year, I heard Lulu was skipping class on a regular basis.
I personally witnessed resistance to referring students for evaluation when I taught third grade in California. Teachers were overtly discouraged from initiating referrals of students, and the principal limited us to referring two students per month. In a child study meeting, the principal poo-pooed a student's difficulty with decoding one-syllable words as an "ELL processing issue." If it were an ELL issue, he would have been able to decode just fine in Spanish, his native language. During the meeting, she encouraged several teachers to watch student's behavior and learning and then take action if the children continued to struggle.
Since it is common knowledge that early intervention is vital, then why wait? So many students drop out and languish in our school systems because of this wishy-washy wait-and-see attitude. If the aforementioned public school districts were hospitals, students would be bleeding to death in epidemic numbers. If your school were a hospital, what would it look like? Would the patients be dead?
Nancy Carroll is the #1 Original Teacherpreneur. She is also a wife, mom, writer, and business developer. She lives in Seattle, WA with her family and dog, Smitty. She can be found at [] or urban hiking while learning foreign languages.

Monday, October 1, 2012

Asperger Highs and Lows

Sometimes our Asperger child soars so high and achieves so much it's easy to pretend that Autism doesn't affect him that much any more... we tell ourselves that maybe the worst is over... and we are lulled into a false sense of security. So we pull back support a little, we let nagging fears and worries subside and we coast along feeling content. Then suddenly our AS child's world implodes and the fantasy life we have created for him in our imagination disintegrates in an instant!
Life seems to have a way of tapping us on the shoulder when we become too complacent. I'm guilty of this... again! In all fairness though, I think it's human nature to hope for the best, to think positively and ignore nagging doubts, but I do believe this is what gets me into trouble every time our son crashes and burns. It feels like I'm starting over each time... it shouldn't be this hard - we've been doing this for 21 years - surely we know what to expect?
I can't decide which is the better approach - should we (as parents) be on our guard the entire time with our son and support him with military-like precision, even if he doesn't want it? Or should we relax and stand back and watch him soar when he's achieving, and celebrate his success with him?
I always thought the 'highs' and 'lows' of life with an Asperger child would even out and become more like a series of speed bumps, but I'm beginning to see that we may have to climb mountains and tumble into crevasses instead. I guess I just need to adjust my picture of life with Autism because not only is the view from the top of the mountain glorious, there are many hidden treasures awaiting in the crevasses.
Recently our Asperger child successfully applied for an apartment, in a city far from home. He was emotionally and sensorily exhausted from living out of a suitcase and sleeping on a friends couch - no privacy - no space to call his own. We celebrated his delight at finally being able to afford an apartment on his own - he would never have to struggle with interacting with flat mates who didn't understand him again. He would never again be at their mercy when it comes to renewing a lease... "We have another friend who'd like to share, and we'd rather him". We also know this will contribute to his success - he needs a 'safe space' where he can be himself, recharge, chill out and most importantly, get away from people.
To add to his joy, the next day he was offered some freelance design work! This would really boost his bank account as he was starting out. He was so excited, so happy! Finally, everything seemed to be coming together. His Dad and I were happy too - for the first time in many weeks we could finally exhale! This move interstate was going to work!
Our Asperger child rang early on his first morning of work. Anxiety had kept him awake all night... a panic attack had nearly crippled him at 3am. "I can't do it Mum - it's too much all at once!" So distraught - so disappointed in himself - so scared that this will be the pattern for his future!
As parents we've just learned a valuable lesson. Sometimes the 'pace' of life can cause anxiety. We will have to be vigilant and help him learn to 'put the brakes on' and how to say no, or at least hold off a potential job offer until he can cope.

Tuesday, September 25, 2012

Top 5 Ways to Reduce Problem Behavior in Children With Autism

If you have a child who has behavior outbursts, it can leave you desperate for things to try to stop the behavior or reduce its intensity. As a behavior specialist, I have learned many reactive strategies that help to reduce behavior if it is already occurring. Without giving you too much technical terms about ABC data, finding functions of behavior, and setting up a behavior intervention plan, (which you should have a behavior therapist do), here are 5 strategies/consequences you can try when you are in the heat of the moment:
1. Ignore the Behavior. Please know that this means you are not to verbalize the behavior that is happening. If your child is doing something dangerous to himself or others, you obviously have to intervene but you still do not have to draw attention to the actual behavior. This strategy only works if you know that your child is doing this behavior to get attention, even if the attention is negative. You don't want to reinforce inappropriate behavior, so ignore and then also try a strategy below.
2. Redirection. If your child is a acting out, verbally or physically, it is important to redirect her to another task or activity. Instead of focusing on the behavior, focus on what you want her to do next.
3. Decrease Demands. Sometimes, your child becomes frustrated with the task at hand and does not know how to ask for help, so instead, he acts out. Lower the demands that are placed on him. This can include lowering the amount of time he has to be on task before he gets a break. You may just have him work for one more minute. Decrease the number of questions or offer assistance to complete the task together.
4. Decrease Stimulation. Often with children with sensory processing disorders, the environment or setting can be causing your child to demonstrate behaviors. If the setting is too loud, has too many people, too many pictures, or is too lit up or too dark, it may be overstimulating for her. Use headphones, a preferred electronic device like an iPhone or iPad to distract her, or simply take a walk outside or to a quieter location. This may help you get through a trip to a restaurant, family party, supermarket, or store.
5. Use a Calming Down Protocol. It is very important to try to help your child self-regulate and calm down before the behavior escalates to a dangerous situation. Teach him how to take deep breaths, fold his hands to avoid hitting/punching, count to a designated number, close his eyes, go for a walk, etc. You can also try some sensory integration in your protocol like deep pressure or light scratching on the arms if your child is calmed by this.

Wednesday, September 19, 2012

Care Training: An In Demand Course For Everyone

Every person on earth would reach a point where they would need professional medical assistance and this is where nurses and other experts in the field comes into play. The government knows that by the year 2020, the number of people who will need the service of nurses and doctors would double and decide to act on it as fast as possible. Their objective is to provide programs that can help ease other people's suffering as they enter the hospital with regard to the billing and quality of service. If you are seeking for a profession that not only pays well but is fun and rewarding as well, then there are many health care training facilities in Australia that you can enroll into. There are unlimited opportunities that await people who take medical professions because of the list of individuals who are seeking health care assistance in maintaining their body's good physical shape. Medical trainings are given to individuals who are seeking greener pastures.
The government has increased the salary of doctors and nurses in an effort to entice others to consider taking health courses. The scarcity of doctors and nurses today are among the many problems that every government in the world is facing right now. The government needs to produce professional nurses and doctors to provide the sick citizens with the utmost care and quality services. There are private organisations that render their help to the citizens with regard to providing medical assistance and are receiving help from the government since they have the same vision thus making this faster and more efficient.
People who have undergone the proper training and passed the appropriate exams can easily get a job since they are qualified to do so. There are many facilities that graduates in this field can go to, like hospitals, aged care facilities, local clinics, and many others. With so many facilities that are looking for professionals, getting a job in the medical field is as easy as singing the ABC song.
If you are currently stuck with your job and can't find time to enroll in an actual school, then you can always study and get certifications online. There are many online sites that are willing to take in individuals who are fed up with their current jobs and want to start anew. Greener pastures await people who take allied health professions. Not only will they get a higher salary, but the job is fun and rewarding as well.

Thursday, September 13, 2012

Illiteracy - A Modern World Problem

When thinking about teaching someone to read, we invariably think about a child of about 6. When we hear about illiteracy, our minds immediately goes to a middle-aged person in some third-world country who did not have the time or resources to learn to read because they had to take up guns and fight a civil war. But this is not the biggest problem in literacy anymore. Illiteracy has become a problem in many first-world and developing countries. According to reports the number of teenagers unable to read at a functional level, are staggering.
What are the reasons for this? Why, in a modern, developed world where reading is a skill we readily accept everyone has, are there so many who cannot read?
It is a vicious cycle. Poverty is one of the reasons people never learn to read properly. Without that proper education, one cannot find a good job, leading to having to accept a menial salary or even long periods of unemployment. Children born in such circumstances have an even more difficult time to learn how to read than others.
One of the things you always hear when you are a teacher, is that you cannot teach a hungry child. When a child is not properly fed, his brain chemicals start changing. This causes the brain to focus only on survival and all energy go to the vital organs to sustain life. It leaves the reasoning and learning part of the brain depleted so even though the child is trying his best, he is just not able to concentrate on what the teacher is trying to teach him.
Another reason is the over-population of classrooms and teachers being pressured by authorities to stick to a certain program. Children are supposed to be sufficiently literate by the time they reach the end of grade 3. Teachers have big classes and a program to follow. In some places it is now popular practice to have a teacher's salary determined by his/her performance in class. So if there are a few children in class who, for whatever reason, cannot keep up with the prescribed program, they easily fall by the wayside.
After grade 3 it is not part of any syllabus to teach basic literacy. Laws on promoting students to the next level differ between different countries, states and schools. But at some stage the child will get stuck in a grade. When this happens it is easy for the child to become despondent. A child like this will easily leave school without any further education. He has now fallen through the cracks in the system and there is no more help for him in the mainstream schooling system.
There are many reasons why children beyond grade 3 cannot read. And probably it is not my fault or yours. But if we leave this to world leaders and government to solve, no help will be coming for this generation. It is up to each and every one of us to teach someone to read.
By teaching a child to read, you empower her to make a better life for herself and those she will need to take responsibility for one day. One better life will make one better country, which will hopefully make one better world.

Friday, September 7, 2012

Typical Learning Contents From PASMA Training Courses

There are several PASMA training courses which would benefit those who are in the work at height industries. These are accredited courses which are recognized by the local authorities on safety and health as well as industries.
There are basic as well as advanced courses offered by PASMA which is a well recognized training agency that contributes to the development of safety and health courses in various industries. 
Types of courses

PASMA offers a variety of training courses to benefit those in the relevant industries. Its Towers for Managers course is essential for managers involved with mobile access towers while the Cantilever Access Tower training proves useful to those who are using Cantilever access methods and equipment.
The PASMA courses on Towers on Stairs, Bridging and Linked towers are important to those who are involved in building and dismantling such items.
These courses can be conducted in a day to 10 days depending on the level of training. After the successful completion of any PASMA course, candidates would receive a content booklet and a PASMA Code of Practice as well as the PASMA certification and photo card as a valid identification which are valid for five years.
Course Contents
Some of the contents of a typical PASMA training course include understanding of towers, inspection, building and maintenance as well as dismantling of the item. The classes for most PASMA courses are kept small for better facilitation especially when it comes to the practical sessions.
PASMA courses are well tailored to those in the building, maintenance and dismantling of mobile access towers and their inspection or usage. Various types of materials on mobile access towers such as fiberglass and aluminum would be considered in the courses for familiarity.
Candidates would be able to understand statutory regulations on mobile access towers, health and safety regulations, Codes of Practice, safety in working at heights, identification of types of equipment and reading of instruction manuals.
The course contents would also cover ground conditions for the erection of mobile towers and the use of appropriate equipment in the setting up, maintenance and dismantling of such towers. There is also the identification and familiarity with other related tools such as outriggers, sole pads and stabilizers which are needed in mobile tower operations.
End of the course
At the end of each PASMA course, candidates would take a multiple choice test; successful candidates would receive the coveted PASMA certificate and photo identification card which are valid for 5 years.

Saturday, September 1, 2012

Contents of Some Scaffolding Training Courses

Those who are interested in the right scaffolding training courses should check out the industry approved CISRS courses which are widely available in the market.
Basic Scaffolder Course
The CISRS scaffolder course is a basic one day skills course which includes an acute assessment of the candidate. Those who have already undergone the CISRS scaffolding training of parts 1 and 2 are eligible for this one day skills test course as they are usually working at work at height jobs.
The course content basically assesses the candidate's competency in interpreting work instructions and deciphering information which would not be a problem if they are familiar with their on-site responsibilities and having applied the course contents of scaffolding training parts 1 and 2 diligently.
Candidates would also be tested on understanding the material list and statement on methods; their skills on components selection and checking would be assessed to confirm their competence. They would also be practically tested on the erection and dismantling of various types of scaffold such as cantilever scaffold.
CISRS scaffold courses
It is a legal requirement that any erection, alteration and dismantling of scaffolding must be handled by a qualified person who has undergone the appropriate training such as CISRS scaffold course. These are held in two parts; both courses are conducted on 10 consecutive days.
A successful completion of these scaffold training courses would qualify the candidate with an industry approved certification to handle scaffolding works or to supervise such works at the work site.
The CISRS scaffold course of part 1 is the basic scaffolding course which allows the candidate to understand the statutory regulations of scaffolding works with the current Codes of Practice. There would be the practical sessions of erecting and dismantling of scaffolds from basic to complex natures.
Independent scaffolds with bridging would be taught with various components used in the industry such as truss out, cantilever drop, roof saddle, gantries, sheeting and safety harness. There would be a great emphasis on safety and health issues as a reminder and caution to candidates on the possible dangers and risks that lurk around the work site.
Hence, the PPE is necessary to be worn as a safety requirement during the course.
When the successful candidates have at least 6 months of work experience, they can proceed to the part 2 of the CISRS scaffold course. This course is also 10 days long with a maximum of 12 candidates to ensure a good ratio of machineries to candidates in the practical usage of equipment.